Steps of Construction of a Single Footing

The main steps of construction of a single footing are:
  1. Excavation

  2. Leveling & Dressing

  3. Brick Flat Soling (BFS)

  4. C.C. Layer

  5. C.C. Block

  6. Footing Reinforcement

  7. Installation of Short Column Reinforcement

  8. Formwork/Shuttering

  9. Concrete Casting

  10. Removal of Formwork

  11. Curing

  12. Back Filling.


Column Footing is also famous as independent footing. An independent footing is one which is provided under a column or either similar member for distributing concentrated load in the form of uniformly loads on the soil below. The footing may be square, rectangular or circular in plan. Depending upon the load to be carried and the bearing capacity of soil, this may be of brick masonry, stone, R.C.C., steel grill-age etc. On account of low bending strength the footings constructed with brick, stone or plain concrete require considerable depth to be safe to carry heavy loads. The depth of plain concrete footing can be appreciably reduced by providing reinforcements at its base to take up tensile stresses. R.C.C. column footings may be circular, rectangular or square in plan. The footing is reinforced both-ways by means of mild steel ribbed bars placed at right angles to one another at equal distances apart.


A shallow foundation transfers building loads to the nearest earth surface, rather than to a sub-surface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. Shallow foundations are usually embedded a meter or so into soil. One common type is the spread footing which consists of strips or pads of concrete (or other materials) that extend below the frost line and transfer the weight from walls and columns to the soil or bedrock. Another common type is the slab-on-grade foundation where the weight of the building is transferred to the soil through a concrete slab placed at the surface.


Deep foundations are used to transfer a load from a structure through an upper weak layer of soil to a stronger deeper layer of soil. There are different types of deep foundations including helical piles, impact driven piles, drilled shafts, caissons, piers, and earth stabilized columns. It ensures stability and durability of a structure. Historically, piles were wood, later steel, reinforced concrete, and per-tensioned concrete. Sometimes these foundations penetrate bedrock.
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