Deep foundations are used to transfer a load from a structure through an upper weak layer of soil to a stronger deeper layer of soil. There are different types of deep foundations including helical piles, impact driven piles, drilled shafts, caissons, piers, and earth stabilized columns. It ensures stability and durability of a structure. Historically, piles were wood, later steel, reinforced concrete, and per-tensioned concrete. Sometimes these foundations penetrate bedrock.

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